On July 1st, Union Naval forces began an assault on Fort McAllister in Bryan County, GA.
Also on the 1st, Robert E. Lee's forces launced a series of uncoordinated assaults on a strong Union position at Malvern Hill in Henrico County, VA. The attacks failed, but despite the victroy, Union commander McClellan withdrew to Harrison's Landing on the James River where his forces could be protected by Union gunboats. This was the last day of the Seven Days Battles, and the end of the Union's Peninsula Campaign.
It was a busy day in Washington as well as President Lincoln signed into law the Pacific Railroad Act, which incorporated the Union Pacific Railroad and subsidizing it with federal money.
And in South Carolina, General David Hunter organized the first all-black infantry regiment, which became the legendary 33rd U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment.
On July 2nd, President Lincoln issued a call for 300,000 3-year enlistments.
From July 4th until August 1st, Confederates under John Hunt Morgan raided Kentucky.
On July 7th in Woodruff County, AR, a Union force under Samuel R. Curtis moved south towards Helena, AR toward a cache of supplies that had been promised but never delivered by the Navy. As they moved along the White River, Confederate forces skirmished with the Northerners. Confederate General Thomas Hindman ordered Albert Rust's brigade to stop the Union force at Cache River, but Rust moved too slowly and didn't make contact until a point 4 miles south of the river. Rust ordered two Texas cavalry regiments under William Parsons to attack but the attacks were poorly organized and the outnumbered Illinois and Wisconsin soldiers fought them off. When reinforcements arrived, the Rebels fled. The Union victory allowed Federal forces to occupy Helena on the Mississippi and hold it for the duration of the war, setting up the eventual victory at Vicksburg.
On July 11th, President Lincoln named Henry Halleck General-in-Chief of the Union Army. Grant was then given command of the Army of the Tennessee.
July 12th saw the U.S. Congress authorize the Congressional Medal of Honor. On that same day, Lincoln wrote letters to the border states congressmen warning them of his upcoming Emancipation Proclamation.
On July 13th, Rebel cavalry under Nathan Bedford Forrest struck the important Union supply center at Murfreesboro, TN. Forrest quickly overran the Federal troops sent to guard the town and by late afternoon, all Union units had surrendered. The victory diverted Union forces from driving on Chattanooga.
Also on that day, Lincoln read a draft of his proclamation to his Secretary of State and Secretary of the Navy, both, although being strong abolitionists, were against the proclamation.
On July 14th, the U.S. Senate passed a bill creating the state of West Virginia.
The next day, the CSS Arkansas sailed past the federal fleet on the Mississippi and destroyed three ships.
On July 16th, the Union under General Pope, launched the Northern Virginia Campaign.
Congress passes the Second Confiscation Act, or The Confiscation Act of 1862 on July 17th. This allows for confiscation of property from people who participate in the war on the Confederate side.
On July 22nd, President Lincoln presented his Emancipation Proclamation to his Cabinet. His Secretary of State William Seward recommended waiting for a victory before presenting it to the country.
On July 23rd in an amazing accomplishment, Confederate General Braxton Bragg moved his army almost 800 miles by rail from Tupelo, MS to Chattanooga, TN.
On July 29th, Belle Boyd was arrested as a Confederate spy, but was released a month later for lack of evidence.
On July 31st, in response to Union General Pope's order that citizens be shot as spies, President Jefferson Davis orders Pope's officers who had been captured to be held as felons instead of prisoners of war.
- Husband, father, grandfather, friend...a few of the roles acquired in 61 years of living. I keep an upbeat attitude, loving humor and the singular freedom of a perfect laugh. I don't let curmudgeons ruin my day; that only gives them power over me. Having experienced death once, I no longer fear it, although I am still frightened by the process of dying. I love to write because it allows me the freedom to vent those complex feelings that bounce restlessly off the walls of my mind; and express the beauty that can only be found within the human heart.